The arches in your feet are formed and shaped by ligaments, tendons and bones.
They play an important role in your movement function and weight bearing
A majority of the impact experienced by the foot, from walking, jumping, or running, is absorbed by the arch.
The three main categories of arch types are:
1- Medium Arches
2- Low Arches
3- High Arches
Most people are in this category. However, a normal /medium arch does not mean the individual will not have foot pain such as planter fasciitis, heel pain…
Individuals with flat feet have flexible arches in nature and are at a greater risk of foot problems such as arch pain, planter fasciitis and heel pain or metatarsalgia.
In individuals with this condition, the arches are more rigid. While walking, running, or standing, all the shock and pressure from the ground is absorbed by the heel and ball of the foot.
Pronation/Supination and Foot Types
Pronation is the biomechanical process where ones feet roll inwards with every step taken. The process starts with striking the ground with the heel and rolling the foot inward, finished with the toes pushing against the ground.
A common mistake is the interchanging of “overpronation” with “low arch” or “flat feet”—these are entirely different conditions.
Overpronation is not always present with low arch or flat feet; but most of individuals with flat feet do experience pronation. Overpronation can also lead to ankle, knee, and low back pain.
Supination is the opposite of pronation and it is the biomechanics whereby the individual does not roll in, but instead experiences pressure on the outside edge of the foot. This creates additional pressure and strain on the ankle and muscles in the foot, as well as the leg.